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reduced water

reduced water

Literature Reference.

Biophysical Chemistry 107 (2004) 71-82
The mechanism of the enhanced antioxidant effects against superoxide anion
radicals of reduced water produced by electrolysis

Kokichi Hanaokaa,*, Dongxu Sunc, Richard Lawrencec, Yoshinori Kamitanib,Gabriel Fernandesc aBio-REDOX Laboratory Inc. 1187-4, Oaza-Ueda, Ueda-shi, Nagano-ken 386-0001, Japan bHoshizaki Electric Company, Limited 3-16 Minamiyakata, Toyoake, Aichi-ken 470-1194, Japan cDivison of Clinical Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA Received 8 July 2003;
received in revised form 22 August 2003; accepted 22 August 2003

= Abstract =
We reported that reduced water produced by electrolysis enhanced the antioxidant effects of proton donors such as ascorbic acid (AsA) in a previous paper.W e also demonstrated that reduced water produced by electrolysis of 2 mM NaCl solutions did not show antioxidant effects by itself.W e reasoned that the enhancement of antioxidant effects may be due to the increase of the ionic product of water as solvent.The ionic product of water (pKw) was estimated by measurements of pH and by a neutralization titration method.As an indicator of oxidative damage, Reactive Oxygen Species- (ROS) mediated DNA strand breaks were measured by the conversion of supercoiled fX-174 RF I double-strand DNA to open and linear forms.Reduced water had a tendency to suppress single-strand breakage of DNA induced by reactive oxygen species produced by H2O2yCu (II) and HQyCu (II) systems.The enhancement of superoxide anion radical dismutation activity can be explained by changes in the ionic product of water in the reduced water.
2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Original paper image

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